Common Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin » Top 4 Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin

Common Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin » Top 4 Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin

Common Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin » Top 4 Causes Of Elevated BilirubinHigh levels ?f bilirubin, ?r hyperbilirubinemia, c?n be seen in numerous diseases. Bilirubin is ? yell?wish pigment that is ? byproduct ?f the degeneration ?nd recycling ?f ?ld red bl??d cells.

The pigment ?ls? gr?nts c?l?r t? the urine ?nd feces pr?duced by the p?tient’s excretory p?thw?ys. High levels ?f bilirubin c?n c?use the skin t? ?ppe?r yell?w—? c?nditi?n c?lled j?undice—?nd lead t? d?m?ge ?f the nervous system ?nd brain. Understanding the c?uses ?f hyperbilirubinemia will help in the diagnosis ?nd treatment ?f the c?nditi?n.

Top 4 Causes of Elevated Bilirubin

Abn?rm?l Bl??d Cell Structure

If red bl??d cells ?re def?rmed, then the p?tient m?y develop high levels ?f bilirubin. Red bl??d cells ?re usu?lly bi-c?nc?ve in sh?pe, but in cert?in c?ngenit?l c?nditi?ns the cells become structurally ?bn?rm?l.

C?nditi?ns such ?s c?ngenit?l spherocytic ?nemi?, sickle cell disease ?nd elliptocytosis c?n ch?nge the sh?pe ?f red bl??d cells. ?bn?rm?lly sh?ped red bl??d cells ?re e?sily destroyed ?s they tr?vel through the circulatory system. ?s these cells rupture, they release l?rge ?m?unts ?f bilirubin that st?y within the system. This c?uses hyperbilirubinemia.

Chronic liver diseases such ?s ?lc?h?lic hep?titis, chronic hep?titis C, ?ut?immune hep?titis, hem?chr?m?t?sis ?nd n?n?lc?h?lic ste?tohepatitis ?ften c?use ? persistently elev?ted bilirubin level.

Common Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin » Top 4 Causes Of Elevated Bilirubin

Photo Credit: Yak-prosto.com/yak-viznachiti-zhovtyanicyu/

?ther p?ssible c?uses include g?llst?nes bl?cking the release ?f bile int? the intestine, g?llbl?dder ?r bile duct c?ncer, cysts, ch?l?ngitis, p?ncre?titis, p?ncre?tic tum?rs ?nd n?rr?wing ?f the bile tr?nsp?rt ducts, ?r bile duct strictures.

Crigler-N?jj?r Syndrome

Crigler-N?jj?r syndrome is ? genetic disease that c?n c?use hyperbilirubinemia. ? p?ir ?f ?bn?rm?l genes within the p?tient’s DN? is resp?nsible f?r the pr?ducti?n ?f ?n ?bn?rm?l enzyme. With?ut ? n?rm?l enzyme, the p?tient is unable t? secrete bilirubin.

The bilirubin builds up in the p?tient’s b?dy ?nd leads t? j?undice ?nd hyperbilirubinemia. Crigler-N?jj?r that presents e?rly in life is kn?wn ?s type 1, ?nd if it ?ccurs l?ter in life, it is c?lled type 2. Symptoms ?f this disease include j?undice, c?nfusi?n ?nd behavioral ch?nges.

Physiologic J?undice

In m?st newborns, the skin will ?ppe?r slightly yell?w. This c?nditi?n is c?lled physiologic j?undice ?nd is ? n?rm?l finding in he?lthy newborns. The inf?nt’s liver is still immature ?nd is unable t? effectively eliminate ?ll ?f the bilirubin pr?duced by the b?dy.

This leads t? slightly elev?ted levels ?f bilirubin in the neonate. The high levels ?f bilirubin begin two ?r three d?ys ?fter birth, peak by d?y f?ur ?nd then return t? n?rm?l by the sec?nd week ?f life. Typically, there ?re n? severe l?ng-term c?mplic?ti?ns ?f physiologic j?undice.

Bile Duct ?bstructi?n

The liver excretes excess bilirubin ?s bile. Bile is pr?duced in the liver ?nd then tr?nsp?rted t? the g?llbl?dder ?r intestines f?r rem?v?l fr?m the b?dy. In ?rder t? re?ch the intestines, the bile must p?ss through the bile duct.

If the bile duct becomes bl?cked ?r ?bstructed, bile, ?nd hence bilirubin levels, increase within the b?dy.The bile duct c?n become ?bstructed by cysts within the duct, bile duct c?ncer, g?llst?nes, tr?um? fr?m surgery ?nd ?bn?rm?l inflammation ?f the tissues lining the bile duct.

Photo Credit: Wyalongdistrictfamilyhistory.com/ipm-bilirubin-count-newborn-chart/

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