Congenital Diseases

Congenital Diseases

Congenital Diseases - What are Congenital Diseases - Cause of Congenital Disease | Tips on - Find TipsCongenital diseases are those types of diseases that are present since birth and caused due to metabolic disorder by defective development. It is not necessarily caused due to genetic factors and may be present due to abnormality in the chromosomes, erroneous morphogenesis or due to intrauterine environment.

A few common congenital diseases found in human beings are:

Dysmelia

This includes birth defects involving the limbs. It has a prevalence rate of 1 in every 1000 births and may refer to the following:

a. Lacking one or more limbs.

b. Malformation of the limbs i.e., a structural defect of the limbs.

c. Presence of too many limbs. For e.g. there is presence of limbs that are more than the usual number or an extra digit on the hand or foot.

Angelman syndrome

This is a disease that involves delayed intellectual and physical development and the affected person has a happy disposition and can be found to clap, smile or laugh frequently. It is a result of a chromosomal deletion or inactivation of a gene and has no known cure as of now.

Benjamin syndrome

This is a kind of mental retardation syndrome that may involve various anomalies of the craniofacial structures, dental carries, dysfunctional gonads and Hypochromic anemia.

Conjoined Twins

They are identical twins joined together at one point of the body. The rate of prevalence is rare, ranging from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000 births and is higher in females.

Down Syndrome

It is a chromosomal disease characterized by the presence of a part or the whole of an extra 21st chromosome. Affected persons have lower than the normal average intelligence and have developmental disabilities.

Heart Disorders

A congenital heart defect involves abnormalities of the structure of the heart and vessels in a newborn baby. This is a very common birth defect and has a high rate of prevalence of 1 in every 125 births.

Cleft Lip and Palate

This is caused due to the abnormal development of the face during the gestation period. It has a rate of occurrence of 1 in 600-800 births. This can be treated successfully by surgery after birth.

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